The Lunisolar Hindu calendar describes six different types of seasons in India throughout the year i.e. Spring: Vasant Ritu, Summer: Grishma Ritu, Monsoon: Varsha Ritu, Autumn: Sharad Ritu, Pre-Winter: Hemant Ritu, Winter: Shishir Ritu.
The seasons in different parts of India vary with altitude, latitude, and distance from the sea level; each season has its pattern of weather and has varying hours of sunlight during the days.
Since the Vedic period, peoples across India and South Asia have been using this Lunisolar Hindu calendar to structure their lives.
These ancient Indian calendars are used in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka; some faithful persons still believe in this calendar, for all-important Hindu festivals and religious occasions, each season consists of two months and six seasons.
Read this article completely for more detailed information about the cycle of Seasons in India.
Different types of Seasons in India with Months:
Spring Season in India (Vasanta Ritu):
Spring Season Introduction:
The spring season in India is in the months of March and April, it is considered as one of the beautiful seasons in the country. The average temperature in spring is 32 °C.
Spring is the season after winter and before summer. The days become longer and the weather heats up, days become longer and nights become shorter in these seasons.
Spring is known in Old English as Lent. In the 14th century, it was called “Springing Time” – a reference to plants “spring from the ground”.
In the 15th century, it was shortened to “spring-time” and in the 16th century only to “spring”, it refers to the seasons as well as ideas of rebirth, rejuvenation, renewal, revival, and rebirth.
Importance of Spring Season:
Spring affects not only the flora but also the animal world. The whole fauna appears with a new skeleton.
The human community comes out of the cover of the quilt-bed sheet and woollen cloth and takes healthy dressing.
The peoples are filled with new excitement. It is the symbol of the euphoria, the festival of Vasant Panchami and Holi.
Effects of spring Season:
Along with humans, animals and birds are also very happy, butterflies hover over flowers, enchanted by mangoes, birds sing in this season.
The sound of parrots is heard right from the cage itself. Everyone is enjoying this season. In today’s urban culture, spring does not bring the same enthusiasm as old times.
When the leaves of trees fall, when new leaves emerge, when buds play their magic, when butterflies and eyebrows decorate them, it is the spring season.
Being away from nature, man is unable to recognize the fragrance of his soil, even then the spring spreads its shadow whether someone appreciates it or not.
Summer Season in India (Grishma Ritu):
Summer Season Introduction:
The summer season in India is between the month of Jyeshtha and Ashadh & according to the English calendar, it occurs in May and June. Summer is the season after spring and before the monsoon.
Summer is the hottest seasons, which comes after spring and before autumn. The days are the longest and the nights are shortest. The average temperature in summer is 38 °C.
The arrival of the summer season:
All the seasons of the year in India occur on their own order and go on showing their influence and importance in nature, Summer comes after the spring season.
Generally, its temperature rises from the month of March to its peak in May and June.
When the Sun moves from the equator towards the Tropic of Cancer, its temperature starts to rise, after the Indian festival of Holi, the heat of the sun starts rising.
This is an indication of the arrival of the summer season in India.
Summer Season Effect:
Nature’s temperature rises in summer, Earth starts to heat like a pan. The body of all the creatures starts scorching with heatstroke.
The water of rivers, ponds, wells starts drying up and the water level starts decreasing. Due to the heat, animals, birds and humans, all start to feel distressed.
Disturbed by the heat of the sun, the creatures begin to seek shade, creatures like a snake, peacock, tiger, etc. are disturbed by summer, forgetting their mutual hate and resting in one place.
Days are bigger and nights are shorter due to the effect of summer.
There is no desire to eat food. desire to drink only cold water is increased in this season, also wants to be lying in the cooler cold air.
Impact on nature:
The effect of summer on nature is so hot that the air gets hot, it starts scorching the trees and animals.
It is difficult for the people to leave the house, to avoid this terrible heat, people go to the hills and cold places.
A place with no electricity, have a lot of trouble.
Importance of summer season:
Like all seasons in India, the summer season has its own special significance. Although the effect of this season is very annoying on human beings, the crops ripen only in summer.
We enjoy juicy fruits, like watermelon, mangoes, cucumber, litchi, etc. The joy of drinking lassi, syrup, ice cream, kulfi, ice cream is experienced in this season.
People enjoy walking and hiking in summer.
In summer, the water of rivers, oceans, etc., dries up and water goes to the sky in the form of vapour and clouds are formed from it.
Then it rains from these clouds. Summer teaches us patience and stamina, heavy rainfall occurs after heavy heat, similarly, happiness comes after suffering.
Thus we find that summer has its own special significance.
If we can make arrangements in advance to avoid the ill effects of summer, then we can avoid the terrible effects and take full advantage of the joy gained from this season.
We can also use the summer vacation in many beneficial works; because at this time, the day is big.
In this way, we can reduce the dullness of our life by recreational means in this seasons in India.
Rainy Season in India (Varsha Ritu):
Rain Season introduction:
Rainy season in India is the time of year when the average rainfall occurs in most of the areas in the country. The season usually lasts between the month of July and August.
The term ‘green season’ is sometimes used as a synonym by the tourism officials. The days are short and the nights are long, the average temperature in summer is 34 °C.
The arrival of Rain:
When dark clouds are wandering in the sky, then understand that the rainy season has arrived.
The arrival of the Rainy seasons is virtually associated with the monsoon, It is called as queen of the season.
During the rainy season, the earth starts to cover itself with a sheet of greenery. All the plants start blowing with a cool breeze.
Birds make melodious songs in the forests, the fast-flowing water of rivers and ponds squelches the glory of rain.
Black clouds roar on the earth with the glow of lightning and the white lines of herons look very beautiful flying in the sky.
Impact on nature:
As soon as the arrival of rain, its effect on all nature starts to be widely visible.
Where the atmosphere becomes very pleasant as soon as the rain comes, there is a lot of water in the river, drains and ponds.
Trees and plants are covered with new leaves, farmers take ploughs and go out to the fields.
In this greenery on the earth, festivals like Nagpanchami, Rakshabandhan, Ganesh Chaturthi, etc are enjoyed.
Children’s, Women’s & Men’s are with umbrellas, raincoats, are seen enjoying rain showers.
Importance of Rain:
India is an agricultural country. More than 80 % of our country population survives in the villages.
Most of the population of the villages are dependent on agriculture, due to the non-expansion of irrigation facilities, people are dependent on rainfall.
Agriculture is the means of our livelihood, the basis of the economy, no production is possible without rain.
It is true that when the rainfall is good, crop production is also good, also due to growing green grass, animals also get good food.
Rainfall is the basic need for human life. Life is not possible in nature without rain; because without this food production is impossible.
Thus rain is the basis of happiness and prosperity of our life. At the same time, excessive rainfall creates a devastating flood situation, which destroys the crops of the fields causes immense loss of public wealth.
Many types of poisonous insects, insects, snakes, scorpions, etc. come out, which can threaten the life of human life.
The occurrence of flies in rain increases the outbreak of cholera, however, rain is the basic need of our life.
Autumn season in India (Sharad Ritu):
Autumn Season Introduction:
An Autumn season in India is the time of year when the leaves fall off the trees, and the colours are amazing. It is also called as the fall season. The season usually lasts between the month of September and October.
Autumn is the season after rainy season and before the pre-winter season. Day and night have the same length and the average temperature in autumn is 33 °C.
Effect of autumn:
With the arrival of the autumn season, nature becomes very pure and beautiful.
The light of the moonlight of the normal moon infuses the whole earth, then what is the earth, what is the sky, the pure and cool moonlight is seen everywhere!
The cloudiness of the clouds is removed from the sky, the clear moon looks like a peek from the clear sky.
Countless stars that appear in the sky, look like a flower blooming in the sky and it seems that there are countless pearls scattered in the sky. In the autumn, there is a little rain in some places.
Importance of Autumn Season:
In the autumn seasons in India, the water of all the rivers and ponds becomes clean.
There is no dust and mud on the earth. A sky without the cloud looks very beautiful. Wagtail birds, swans also appear in the autumn.
All the people are engaged in their work-business; because, in the rainy season, everyone’s work stops.
All insects and mites are demolished as soon as autumn arrives. The excitement festivals like Navratri, Deepawali comes in this season.
In this way, autumn holds importance in all the six months due to its natural beauty. People are motivated to be dynamic in their duties.
Pre- Winter Seasons in India (Hemant Ritu):
Pre- winter Introduction:
Pre-winter season in India is the time of year when it is moderately cold (by Indian standards) with minimum temperatures decrease. The season usually lasts between the month of November and December.
Pre-winter is the season after autumn and before the winter season and the average temperature in autumn is 27 °C.
Importance of pre-winter season:
Ripe yellowish-leaves fall from the trees so that new leaves can take their place. This season, which gives a new message of innovation, is very important from the natural point of view.
The natural reason for the leaves to fall from the trees is to limit the evaporation of trees so that the trees can compensate for the loss of water.
The purpose behind this act of nature is that the leaves left by the trees can adapt to the tree from the lack of water.
When old, shabby, ripe leaves their place, then new leaves take their place, new branches burst from the trees give full adolescence to the tree, as well as increase its life and energy.
These fallen leaves of trees help in creating a new layer of land in the rainy season, new plants sprout very easily in this new layer of land.
In this, the temperature of the Sun starts increasing gradually, due to which all the living beings get some relief from the cold.
This season gives the message of deserting the temptation of ancient times and urges for newness, it gives the message that change is the law of nature.
Many sports competitions are arranged in these seasons, winter sports competitions range from local to national and international.
While there are many benefits to this, there are some disadvantages.
Due to excessive cold, people chill and get absorbed in the cheeks of the period. In this season diseases like cold, cough, asthma starts spreading.
People’s work slows down due to excess of cold because during the cold days, fuel consumption is very high.
There is occasional rainfall in this season, due to which crops are spoiled. Crops and vegetables rot due to frost and fog. The sun goes down like the moon.
Winter Seasons in India (Shishir Ritu):
Winter Season Introduction:
The winter season in India is the coolest season of the year, usually lasts between the month of January and February.
The winter name comes from an old Germanic word that means the time of water and refers to the rain and snow of winter in middle and high latitudes.
Winter is the season after pre-winter and before the spring season and the average temperature in autumn is 23 °C.
The arrival of Winter Season:
In this season, the weather is affected by air pressure.
The centre of high pressure develops in the northern region of the Himalayas and from here the winds start flowing towards the Indian subcontinent.
This wind reaches as the dry continental wind system.
At this time, the temperature in the plains of northern India reaches 18 ° C, but due to the wind moving in the south direction, the temperature increases due to the sea proximity and tropical condition.
The temperature of the plains of northern India goes up to 10 ° C.
At night, its temperature drops below 0° C. This cold winter season is usually referred to as cold wave.
Importance of winter season:
In this, Kharif crops are prepared by ripening in the farms.
Rabi crops, wheat gram and pulses crops are good in the fields as soon as the Kharif crops grow., it is very beneficial for rabi crops.
Various fruits, flowers and vegetables are available in abundance in this seasons in India.
Coriander and green vegetables along with the rabi crops in the fields increase the taste of people’s tongues.
Crops like carrot, radish, tomato, peanuts, peas, cabbage taste their own unique taste, this season is also very beneficial for health.
It is said to increase immunity to fight disease; because fresh vegetables and fruits containing vitamins make the body strong.
In this season we enjoy festivals like Deepawali, Christmas, Eid, etc. All peoples are seen putting colourful woollen clothes, sweaters, woollen shawls, coats, mufflers, etc.
Enjoys lukewarm incense with hot tea, various types of sports are organized in this season. Competitions like cricket, hockey, kabaddi, kho-kho, football, athletics etc. increase the joy of cold.
This season its own special significance. In this form, the winter season is very beautiful and useful in nature.
Mechanism of the cycle of Seasons:
Conclusion for Seasons in India:
|Spring||March- April||25 °C|
|Summer||May- June||38 °C|
|Monsoon||July- August||34 °C|
|Autumn||September- October||33 °C|
|Pre-Winter||November- December||27 °C|
|Winter||January- February||23 °C|
The duration and intensity of “seasons in India” are not fixed and they are subject to change based on some external environmental factors such as wind pressure, the direction of air currents, cloud formation, man-made factors such as deforestation and pollution, etc.
These changes are largely reflected in the intensity of weather in India and also in neighbouring parts. Therefore, due to the large geographical scale and diverse topography, the weather for India cannot be generalized.
People living with changing seasons get a chance to wear different types of outfits, food preferences of people also change according to the seasons.
Changes in the weather throughout the year provide a good experience for the people of the country; however, extreme weather conditions can be dangerous sometimes.