National integration is the awareness of a common identity among the citizens of a country, this means that although we belong to different castes, religions and speak different languages, we recognize the fact that we are all one.
It is not just a national feeling, but the spirit which brings people of all dialects and beliefs together in a similar endeavour.
‘National Integration‘ arises thought the behaviour and determination of citizens.
It is the duty of every person as a citizen to oppose the forces and ideas that weaken national unity and integrity.
In this article, we have discussed the definition of national integration by different authors, importance of national integration, advantages & disadvantages of national integration are also discussed in this article.
Definition of National Integration by different authors:
Dr S. Radhakrishna defines that national integration cannot be made by bricks and mortar, mould and hammer, but it quietly grows in people’s minds through education.
The great ideologist and author Myron Weiner, defines “National integration implies the avoidance of divisive movements that will balance the presence of attitudes in the nation and society that distinguish national and public interest from parochial interest”.
HA Gani defines, “National integration is a socio-psychological and educational process through which a feeling of unity and harmony develops in the hearts of the people and a sense of common citizenship or feeling of loyalty to the nation is fostered among them”.
To sum up, the concept of national integration includes political, economic, social, cultural and psychological dimensions and the interrelationships between them.
Importance of National Integration:
The importance of national integration is certainly can be understood as it helps to stabilize democracy, improve economic growth, develop the nation and provide all the important rights and duties to the people.
A country like India has a varied society and has a large population, so it is a more difficult task to achieve.
There was never a problem of national integration in ancient India. From time to time, some people and ethnic communities have been coming to India from outside
Their language gradually merged with their customs, rituals and way of life in Indian society. This process also enriched society and culture here.
When we talk about Indian culture, it means not the culture of anyone cult or any particular community, but the culture of the whole of India.
In order to strengthen national integration in ancient times, many tasks were done smoothly. The biggest task among them was to develop a tendency to travel among Indians.
Since ancient times, people have been coming from one place of the country to other places with devotion.
Need for National Integration:
When national integration occurs, individuals have the possibility to work together to build systems that enhance the prosperity of a nation and its people.
Some things that may come in the way of national integration include religious or political divisions as well as communication barriers between citizens.
Nature of National Integration:
There are two types of national integration. One form is based on uniformity, i.e. language, living and customs, ritual worship
Another form of national integration is internal unity, i.e. language, the standard of living, customs, creed etc. of the people living in the nation may be different and however, everyone has the same attitude and thinking regarding national interests.
Everyone has the same feeling and thinking on national issues such as national unity, integrity, sovereignty.
In India, more than 250 languages and dialects are spoken and 22 languages have been notified as national languages, in the Constitution.
Apart from the Hindus, Muslim Christians, Parsi, Sikh and believers of many religions. Naturally, there is a difference between the costumes and worship practices in them, but in spite of this, there is unity about national interests.
This is called “unity in diversity“. The spirit of nationalism gives strength to our unity.
Supporting Elements in National Integration:
Our national heroes have made several efforts from time to time to keep India’s unity and integrated. The Indian Constitution incorporated such ideals and principles that strengthen the unity of India.
These principles are essential for the unity and integrity of India are a democracy, fundamental rights, fundamental duties, the unified justice system, secularism, common national emblems and national festivals etc.
India is a democratic country, here the elected representatives of the public constitute the government. These representatives work according to the wishes of the public because it is the public who elects and sends them as a public representative.
1. Equal Fundamental Rights:
The Indian Constitution provides for 6 fundamental rights. These basic rights are equally enjoyed by Indian citizens without any discrimination.
Fundamental rights are important for the welfare and all-round development of citizens. There is a provision of equality in fundamental rights, freedom and social justice etc. to provide development opportunities to the citizens.
Under these constitutional provisions, the weaker sections of the society, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other backward classes are protected.
Every community has freedom of religion and language, etc. Directive principles of policy also guide the government to take measures to serve the interests of the poor, the oppressed and the weaker sections of society.
2. Equal Fundamental Duties:
Fundamental duties are also mentioned in the Indian Constitution. It is the duty of every citizen of India to honour the Constitution and its ideals, institutions, national flag and national anthem.
All citizens should always be ready to serve the nation for the unity and integrity of India and build a sense of brotherhood and protect public property.
The judiciary is responsible for protecting democracy and the rights of citizens in India, it has a single judicial system to enforce the laws of the Union or the Center and the States. The judiciary of India is unified and is formed like a pyramid.
Our Constitution declares India to be a secular nation. Followers of every religion have the right to religious freedom, the government will not discriminate against any religion.
4. Identical Symbols:
The Constitution of India has also adopted national emblems, which inspire all citizens to have ideals and loyalty.
Such as the National Flag – Tricolor, National Anthem – Jana Gana Mana, National Song – Vande Mataram, National Symbol – Ashoka Symbol etc.
National emblems strengthen the national spirit and establish unity which is helpful in national integration.
There are people of different sects, castes and languages in India who have their own customs and festivals, but we also have three national festivals, i.e. Independence Day, Republic Day and Gandhi Jayanti.
All Indians celebrate them enthusiastically and this strengthens the feeling of national unity.
5. Tourism and National Integration:
Tourism has been a major supporting element of national integration since the beginning. Tourism helps in understanding such a large country and awakening a sense of unity among all.
Understand each other’s characteristics and problems, due to which similar feelings, thoughts and attitudes develop. Tourism helps in understanding the culture of the country, economic and industrial development and new dimensions of development.
Our country is like a garland of flowers. In this garland, flowers of many colours and fragrances are threaded into a thread.
It simply means that we live in this nation together, with mutual harmony and love, our sense of nationality gives it the appearance of a prosperous and powerful nation.
National Integration in India:
India is a sovereign, democratic, secular country. Here, all the people have equal rights and duties without discrimination on the basis of religion, caste, colour, creed, region and language, etc.
India is a multi-racial and multi-religious country. It is a secular country where the people of all religions worship without any let or hindrance according to their religious practices, though subject to law and order.
Geographically and linguistically India has a vast variety it is our unity in diversity. Indian people in different states and regions eat different kinds of food.
They wear different clothes, they speak different languages, they have different castes and they observe different religious practices, still, they all are Indian.
it is a pity that communal rights take place in different parts of our country of an all mostly the innocent, gullible people are incited by political leaders are religious bigots to indulge in acts of violence and resort to arson, murder, loot, Mayhem, etc.
The result is the untold loss of life and property, mostly of innocent people. An awakening and love for the country should be brought about among the common people.
These are the innocent illiterate people, who are most gullible and most likely to be astray, therefore the literacy campaign should be intensified.
Inter-cast and inter-religious marriages should be encouraged. People should be encouraged to celebrate together festivals sacred to all religions.
Ancient monuments where the temples are must use should we consider national monuments.
Students should be given patriotic lectures in colleges and school and college curriculum should include lives of great national leaders.
The practice of Pilgrimage, fairs, etc. were the members of all committees. Participate should be encouraged.
Causes of National Integration:
This is a major obstacle to national integration. There is a great difference in the population of different religions and castes in India.
Followers of the appropriate caste or religion consider themselves superior to those who believe in other religions or castes.
These biases are so ugly and narrow that people are unable to think of national interest.
This is a major obstacle to national unity. In our country, people follow different religions: Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, etc. Generally, all citizens live together in harmony.
Sometimes the accumulated interests create feelings of mutual enmity and hatred, leading to communal clashes. We need to rein in the communal divide to keep national unity unharmed.
It is also a major obstacle in India’s national unity. There is a growing richness for the creation of new states based on language.
The narrow sense of regionalism in various states of the country is increasing mutual enmity between states.
4. Political parties:
In democracies, political parties need to be there for building public opinion and political awareness.
Unfortunately, there are many parties that chase votes on the basis of caste, religion, creed and region, disregarding the public and national interest.
5. Linguistic differences:
In a vast country like India, the national language should be spoken and understood in all regions.
But due to narrow regional views, Hindi or any other language has not yet been included as a means of communication by all the people of the country.
Politics on linguistic distinctiveness is not letting people rise above their partisan differences over language.
6. Economic disparity:
There is great social and economic diversity in our country. Some people in the country are rich, while most are poor.
Economic asymmetry is a major problem in national integration and integration.
Advantages of National Integration:
- Increases the feeling of brotherhood.
- Reduces differences about religion, region, race, culture.
- Reduces murders, massacres and riots etc.
- Supports in developing the nation.
- Increase unity among people.
- Disadvantages of National Integration:
- Social tension
- Corruption and illiteracy
- Lack of urbanization in some states
- Diversity with diverse issues
- Reduces differences regarding religion, region, race, culture or caste.
- Cycle of Poverty
Limitations in National Integration:
There was no problem of national integration in ancient India, the whole country was tied in the thread of unity.
In the nineteenth century, the first step was taken in the direction of thinking towards developing the trend of segregation in the country.
Some people promote them for personal interest in our society. Sometimes people become more emotional in matters of their religion, their caste language or region.
This creates a situation of tension or conflict in society, this situation threatens the integrity of the country by weakening its unity.
Suppose there is a village in which people from two different communities live, they do not trust each other. So they have two different schools, two different water tanks etc. Apparently none of which is in good condition. The teachers available in the village are divided between the two schools.
Now suppose that a student of community A is interested in history, but due to lack of a good life teacher he does not get good guidance in his own school.
Interestingly, the best history of the village is that of teacher community B and hence the teacher in another school. In this way, some students may lose their true potential due to caution between the two communities.
The two communities trusted and respected each other, there would have been a single and more developed school, with all the best teachers available.
This will help every student in the village regardless of their community. Ultimately, the village would have benefited greatly. National integrity does the same thing but on a much larger scale.
Conclusion of National Integration:
For a developing country like India, which has been a victim of slavery for some years; It should be strengthened for national integration to avoid threats like communalism, casteism and regionalism.
These self-governments challenge national integration, leading to assassinations, massacres and riots, etc. The addition of external elements and forces became restrictive to national integration.
Progress the country always struggles to divide the country and struggle mutually; the revolution in Kashmir is supported by such external forces.
Prolonged confusion in Kashmir has separated these areas from the national mainstream youth when the number of these disorganized elements exceeds, they struggle for complete isolation.
India is a country of vast geographical diversity, where many religions, castes, tribes and sects live.
These differences are the superiority of our culture, when unilateral, become a weakness for national unity and integration.
To maintain national integration, it is necessary to participate in the elements of national integration.
We need to recall the stories of countless nationalists who laid down their lives to maintain national independence and sovereignty.
Following the path and ideals of great nationalists promotes national integration.