The supreme law of India is known as the Constitution of India.
The great leader who created the Indian Constitution was Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar born on 14 April 1891 in Mhow, Madhya Pradesh.
Dr. Ambedkar spent his whole life fighting for equality in the country.
The constitution of a country is based on certain points, therefore Jawaharlal Nehru introduced the Objectives Resolution on 13 December 1946 in the Parliamentary Assembly, which was passed on 22 January 1947.
Constitution of India Essay:
Salient features of the Constitution:
1. India will be declared an independent, sovereign republic, for which it will form a Constituent Assembly.
2. Union of India shall include all the territories which are presently in British India or in the princely states or who join the Union with their agreement later.
3. The states which will join the Union of India will be considered as self-directed units, they will get special powers which they will use.
4. Governments of sovereign independent India and all its constituents will receive power from the people.
5. All the people of India will be ensured the boon of justice, equality and freedom.
6. Adequate security measures will be guaranteed to minorities, backward classes and Dalit’s.
7. The territorial integrity of the Indian Republic and sovereign rights over the land, water and air of the Republic will be upheld in accordance with the laws of justice and civilized nations.
So that this ancient country attains it’s legitimate and honorable place in the world and world peace and mankind make his voluntary contribution to the welfare of country.
Preamble of the Constitution- Constitution of India Essay:
These great values were incorporated in the Preamble of the Constitution, the work which started on 9 December 1946 was completed on 26 November 1949.
The Preamble of the Constitution said: “We, the people of India, take a pledge to make India a sovereign democratic republic and all its citizens are social, economic and political justice, freedom of thought, expression, faith, faith and worship, equality of title and opportunity.
To protect the dignity of the person and the unity of the nation in all of them, Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, we adopt, enact and surrender this Constitution. “
In 1976, there was the 42nd Amendment, which added four other words to this text.
After the words ‘ Prabhuta Sampan ‘, ‘Socialist’ and ‘Secular’ and ‘Unity of Nation’ and ‘Akhandata’ have been replaced.
important points of the preamble- Constitution of India Essay:
1. We the people of India: This constitution is not made by the British Parliament or any foreign authority, but by the representatives of the Indian people.
2. Sovereign: India is an independent country, it is not controlled by any other power.
3. Socialist: In India, the form of democratic socialism has been recognized.
4. Secular: The formula of ‘Sarva Dharma Sambhav’ is applicable in India, all religions are same in the state.
5. Democratic: The power of India resides in the public, which has been used for its elected and responsible representatives.
6. Republic: The President is the President of the state, who is elected for five years, his post is not inherited.
7. Justice: The Constitution has guaranteed socio-economic and political justice.
8. Freedom: People have been ensured the right to think, express, believe and worship.
9. Equality: Equality of title and opportunity has been ensured to all people.
10. Fraternity: The goal of fraternity has been fixed to ensure the dignity of the person, unity and integrity of the nation.
According to this preamble, India has been declared a sovereign, secular, democratic republic of sovereignty and all its citizens have been ensured the blessings of justice, freedom, equality and fraternity.
The vocabulary of the preamble is so brief that KM Munshi has called it the Political Horoscope of India.
In the words of the famous English writer Probarkar: “It is the most soul in the constitutions of the world.”
According to Pt. Thakurdas Bhargava, a member of the constitution: “This is the most valuable part of the constitution. This is the soul of the Constitution. “
Importance of the Preamble to the Constitution of India Essay:
1. It is the gift of the nation-makers of India.
All the previous constitutional documents were due to the British Parliament, but it is the creation of great leaders of India, especially the legalists.
2. Our constitution is not bound to any particular economic or social ideology.
Although the term socialism has been used, it does not mean any harsh model of socialism, this is democratic socialism, which can also be called positive liberalism.
3. It is a sacred form. Governments and citizens are expected to adopt its ideals made the state sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic and republic.
He has ensured to all citizens the blessings of justice, freedom, equality and fraternity.
4. It has a high ideal and sense of the highest law of the country and it is expected that the judiciary should keep these ideals in mind while exercising the power of judicial review.
In short, as Dr. S. Radhakrishnan: This preamble resolves every symptom of autoeroticism and every part of the ruthless tradition.”
Impact of partition of country on implementation of Constituent Assembly:
The Constituent Assembly was formed on the basis of the recommendations of the Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946, 292 members were elected by the assemblies of 11 provinces.
Since this plan did not accept the demand of Pakistan, the Muslim League rejected it and started its Pakistan movement in violent ways.
In the elections of July 1946, the Muslim League was particularly successful in Bengal and Punjab, it secured 78 seats, but the Congress remained a majority.
When the Constituent Assembly began its work on 9 December 1946, the Muslim League boycotted it.
After the partition of the country on August 15, 1947, members of the Muslim League went to Pakistan, which reduced its membership.
Now the Constituent Assembly started functioning smoothly, the Drafting Committee was formed, which drafted the Constitution with nearly 6 months of persistence, which was passed by the House.
Hence, the partition of the country had a definite impact on the functioning of the Constituent Assembly which is known by the following facts:
1. The Constitution established a secular or secular state in India.
Important provisions were made before the law for equality, freedom of religion, prohibition of any kind of discrimination in the use of public goods on the basis of religion and community and prohibition of discrimination on any such basis in public services.
2. Freedom of citizens, social, economic and political justice, thinking, expression, belief, faith and worship in the Preamble of the Constitution.
It was resolved to encourage uniformity of status and opportunity and fraternity that ensures the dignity of the individual and the unity of the nation.
3. Due to partition, Punjab was renamed as East Punjab and Bengal as West Bengal, the elected members of the parts went to Pakistan left the Constituent Assembly.
4. The elected members who were from Indian Territory but went to Pakistan, their vacancies were filled by re-election.
5. The second part of the constitution contains provisions related to Indian citizenship, those who stayed in India got Indian citizenship.
They too got Indian citizenship, whose own or their parents were born in Akhand Bharat and who had been residing here for at least five years before the Constitution came into force.
Those who immigrated to India from Pakistan before July 19, 1948 were also given citizenship, provided either they or their parents or grandparents were born in Akhand Bharat and they are living here normally.
But those who came to India after such a date can also be citizens if, apart from the above conditions, they have registered their name after staying in the office of the concerned government official for at least 6 months.
A person who migrated from India to Pakistan after March 1, 1947 has lost his citizenship but can become a citizen of India if after 19 July 1948, he has come to India from the appropriate government official for permanent rehabilitation.
6. Due to the partition of the country such serious socioeconomic and political conditions ascended that the work of the Constituent Assembly could not run at a rapid pace.
The number of refugees coming from Pakistan was increasing and their resettlement was necessary.
Communal riots were happening at some places and the country was stuck in food crisis.
7. In the period after 1920, leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Patel and Rajendra Prasad demanded that the Constituent Assembly be formed on the basis of direct election.
But in 1946, the terrible form of the Pakistan movement given these leaders agreed to the indirect election of the members of the Constituent Assembly.
This gave some critics a reason to raise objections to this assembly being a democratic body.
8. The princely state of Kashmir was not merged with India.
When Maharaja Hari Singh signed the merger of India on 26 October 1947, it became an integral part of India, then our forces reached there and stopped the attack of Pakistan.
Pakistan considered this merger illegal, the matter reached the United Nations where the Security Council suggested its solution by public decision.
In view of the seriousness of the situation, Article 370 of the Constitution of India, Jammu and Kashmir was accorded special state status.
It is a matter of satisfaction and happiness that our great leaders created this constitution even while living and working in such severe conditions.
In the words of Prof. K. Rao: “As far as possible under the circumstances, this constitution has been made in a democratic manner.”
Conclusion for Constitution of India Essay:
The Constitution of India serves as a supervisory bright for its citizens.
It has helped India achieve the status of a republic. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and the members of the drafting committee of the Constitution of India have indeed done a commendable job for which he will always be remembered.