Water Pollution Essay

In this Water Pollution Essay, we had discussed Water pollution causes and effects, types of water pollution, the solution to water pollution, etc. is also argued.

Water Pollution is directly or indirectly due to water bodies (seas, lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, etc.) mix of pollutants that causes environmental degradation and the biosphere (human, plants and animals) effects.

In this article Essay on Water Pollution, we had provided the essays in different word limits, which you can use as per your need:

Essay on Water Pollution 150 words:

Water is considered life, without water, living beings will not be able to survive.

We use water for drinking, bathing, irrigation and sanitation, but these days our use water has become polluted.

Many dirty elements get mixed in water, dirt, plastic, rotten-throat substances, disinfectants etc. have reduced the quality of water considerably.

Dirty water contains harmful germs that harm our health, therefore, we should not contaminate the water; no substance should be left in the water reservoirs that make it dirty.

Social awareness should be spread to water pollution, water is called nectar so we must maintain its cleanliness.

Water Pollution Essay

Water Pollution Essay 200 words:

The level of fresh drinking water on the earth is decreasing day by day; there is limited availability of drinking water on the earth, but that too is being polluted due to human activities.

In the absence of fresh drinking water, it is difficult to estimate the possibility of life on earth.

In this Water pollution Essay, we describe water is a mixture of external substances through organic, inorganic, biological and radiological in water reducing quality and utility.

Harmful pollutants can contain various types of impurities including harmful chemicals, dissolved gases, suspended substances, dissolved minerals and microorganisms.

All contaminants reduce the dissolved oxygen levels in water and affect the lives of animals and humans to a great extent.

Dissolved oxygen is the oxygen present in the water required by the aquatic system to continue the life of plants and animals.

However, there is a demand for oxygen by aerobic microbes to oxidize the organic materials of biochemical oxygen wastes.

Water pollution is caused by natural water pollution (due to leaching of rocks, the decay of organic materials, decay of dead materials, silting, soil erosion, etc.) and another is man-made water pollution like forests.

Harvesting, the establishment of industries near large water bodies, high level of industrial waste emissions, domestic sewage, synthetic chemicals, radioactive waste, fertilizers, pesticides, etc.

Essay on Water Pollution 500 words:

Water pollution is one of the major issues in the world which has existed for some time.

Although many initiatives and steps have been taken to prevent water pollution, it is still a matter of greatest concern to the global population.

Water pollution can be classified into various types and the sources of water pollution are many which are extremely affecting the lives of humans as well as other species.

Major Sources of Water Pollution:

Events during the Earth’s natural equilibrium cycle regulation are constantly moving with many new changes.

At the same time, the man keeps on unknowingly manipulating natural components during the coordination of activities of progress and development.

Sources of many pollutants are produced naturally during these activities and processes.

Considering the productive sources of these pollutants, water pollution can be mainly divided into two parts. Also, read Water Pollution Essay 1000 words.

Natural Source:

Natural actions are the structural components of nature in general, but sometimes these natural actions in a particular area cause destruction by pollution.

For example, ash particles and silt from volcanic eruptions are precisely damaging to plants and natural aquatic ecology, along with deteriorating the quality of water bodies.

Toxic-particles present in them ascertain to be fatal for all living organisms including humans.

Many other such incidents happen automatically in nature, which has an important contribution to increasing the pollution level of water.

The sediment, soil, fine sand particles and mineral elements produced due to destruction of natural rocks, erosion etc., are found in drinking water resources through rainwater, reservoirs and rivers.

Some naturally occurring chemicals such as chloride, fluoride, arsenic and other heavy elements are highly harmful in large amounts, serious impact on the survival of aquatic species.

Man-made Resources:

Domestic effluents, sewage waste, industrial and agricultural chemical effluents and waste generated from transportation and other sources in man-made sources make the chemical, physical and biological quality of water inappropriate.

This type of polluted water is also unsuitable for domestic use, drinking water and irrigation of crops.


The man-made pollution sources and activities which have been found responsible for water pollution are as follows:

Industrial Activities:

Today, due to the expansion of industrial pollutants in water, the problem of water pollution is increasing rapidly.

Pollution Factors Most of the polluted water bodies are becoming unusable due to various types of toxic chemicals present in the effluent discharged from industrial projects mainly sugar mills, paper and textile mills, leather modification plants, jute, steel and fertilizer plants etc.

In coal-fired thermal power projects, about 20 per cent of the total use of coal comes out as silt and mortar, which are disposed of around the water bodies, which often flow into the ponds, rivers and other water bodies along with rainwater.

They have been found responsible for water pollution. A large amount of water is used by refrigerant plants in industries.

Hot water throughout the production process, volatile and suspended waste oils are produced in large quantities and contribute to water pollution.

Industrial effluents from factories are often containing organic and inorganic pollutants.

These industrial effluents have a variety of toxic metals such as chromium, mercury, iron, lead, zinc, copper, cadmium, arsenic, etc., which have the potential to significantly damage all ecosystems including humans.

Also, oil, grease and other oily residues are mostly left untreated in water bodies from port or shipping business and oil tanker accidents are also responsible for water pollution in the sea and oceans.

High concentrations of radioactive waste released from fuel production in nuclear power plants can cause the death of other organisms, including humans, while low concentrations have the potential to cause cancer and other diseases.

Human and living organisms can reach their body and put their fatal side effects on enzymatic and other systems. Also, read Water Pollution Essay 2000 words.

Household Activities and Urban Sewage Waste:

From routine tasks like cooking food, cleanliness, huge amounts of water are unnecessary wasted.

These include sanitizers used in sanitation and various types of chemical effluents, oily materials released from the kitchen, various types of materials in addition to granulated materials, as sewage effluents, through sewage drains and eventually polluting in large water bodies.

According to the World Health Organization by 2020, sewage wastewater in the absence of proper sewage disposal, and the microbes found in them, can affect 135 million people related to drinking water.

In India, only 35 per cent of the sewage is treated primarily, 10 per cent is secondary treatment and the rest is executed in untreated land or water.

It is estimated that about 75 per cent of the country’s sewage, untreated or partially treated, it is being used in agriculture.

Metropolitan solid and liquid wastes, sewage effluents etc. are destroying the natural ecology of water communities in most places in untreated or under-treated condition.

The pathogens and chemicals present in sewage are spreading deadly and infectious diseases like cholera, typhoid, diarrhoea, jaundice, liver and other stomach related diseases along with many fleshly and physical changes.

Apart from this, it is also having a fatal effect on terrestrial, aquatic animals. Typhoid, diarrhoea, jaundice, liver and other stomach related diseases are spreading.

Apart from this, it is also having a fatal effect on terrestrial, aquatic animals. Typhoid, diarrhoea, jaundice, liver and other stomach related diseases are spreading.

A large amount of oxygen is required for dissolution of organic and chemical substances present in sewage.

Lack of soluble oxygen poses a threat to the survival of aquatic species. Also, some toxins present in sewage prove to be extremely harmful to aquatic species.

Fishes are killed due to the effects produced due to sewage (e.g., reduction in water-soluble oxygen and excess of toxins).


Water is an important source of life and if it gets polluted it will challenge the existence of life on this planet.

It is already known that only 1% of the water available on Earth is suitable for drinking and if the water pollution rate keeps increasing then the day is not far when water scarcity will challenge our existence.

The prediction that the Third World War will be fought for water may also be true. Therefore we must save each & every drop of water and make it available for our future generation.

Essay on Water Pollution

Water Pollution Essay 1000 words:

Water pollution occurs when pollutants are generated due to various human activities, making their way into water bodies and natural water resources.

Toxic chemical byproducts from factories or pollutants due to human disorder get brushed away by wind and rain and pollute rivers, canals, lakes, ponds etc.

 Pollutant elements are also absorbed by the soil and contaminate groundwater resources.

Waterborne disease resulting from the use of contaminated water is the leading cause of deaths and hospitalizations globally.

Even indirect intake of contaminated water can lead to serious disease like cancer.

For example, eating fish that are living in contaminated water can cause heart diseases, cancer and other serious diseases for years.

Types of Water Pollution:

Each type of water pollution has a different effect on water pollution due to pollutant difference. Various types of water pollution and their effects are discussed in detail below.

1. Domestic Effusion:

The effluent containing domestic wastes is called ‘sewage water’.

Various substances are used in various daily household chores and cooking, bathing, washing and other cleaning works, which are dumped into the drains with household effluents as waste materials and eventually fall into the water bodies.

This type of effluent consists of rotten fruits and vegetables, stove ashes from kitchens, various types of rubbish, clothing rags, scavengers, dirty water and other polluting wastes, which consist of water pollution.

At present, the use of synthesized sanitizers is being increased day by day in cleaning works, which together with the water sources, become a permanent cause of water pollution.

2. Sewage:

The term water pollution was first used in the situation of pollution caused by human sewage in the water.

If bacteria commonly found in human entrails were present in water, then that water was considered as polluted water which was considered unfit for human use.

Human excreta consists mainly of waste from domestic and public toilets. Sewage contains both organic and inorganic substances.

The majority of solid faeces are organic, in which the living organisms and sometimes solids microorganisms are also present.

Various types of microorganisms, bacteria, protozoa, viruses, fungi and algae etc. grow at a rapid pace due to excess of organic matter.

This type of contaminated sewage gets into the water sources through untreated sewage and causes severe water pollution.

Discharged sewage by humans and animals in open places also mix with rainwater in water sources and cause water pollution, it is called biological pollution.

Notably, 5 lakh tons of sewage are produced in a year on 10 lakh persons, most of which are found in the sea and rivers.

According to an estimate, out of 142 cities with a population of more than 1 lakh in India, there are only 8 such cities where there is a complete arrangement for the disposal of sewage.

Out of these, there are 62 such cities which have proper system while 72 are such cities where there is no proper system. Also, read Water Pollution Essay Conclusion.

3. Industrial Effluents:

Often, after the production process in each industry, many unusable materials are left, which is called industrial waste material.

Most of these industrial wastes or effluents mainly contain many types of acids, alkalis, salts, oils, fats etc. toxic chemical substances are present.

These all mix in water and make the water poisonous and pollute it.

The pulp and paper industry, sugar industry, textile industry, leather industry, liquor industry, pharmaceutical manufacturing industry, food processing industry and chemical industries release a significant amount of waste, which is disposed of in water sources.

Most industrial wastes are organic materials, which are decomposed by bacteria, but this process takes place at a very slow rate, which results in vulgar smell and the water of drains carrying waste materials gets polluted.

Chemical substances like arsenic, cyanide, mercury, lead, iron, copper, acid and alkali etc.

The levels are disorganized while the fish are directly affected by fat, oil and grease. BOD from cleaning, washing, dyeing, pulp centre, motor service station etc.

In metal industries and alkali are found in water in large quantities.

BOD, COD from paper and pulp industry. Ammonia, acid, bacteria; nitrogen and urea from the fertilizer industry;

BOD, COD, solid particles, dyes and heavy metal oils, etc. from the textile industry;

Solid particles from the plastics industry, BOD, COD etc.

 BOD, solid particles, dust, solid particles, oil etc. from rubber treatment;

Food grain mills release pollutants like BOD, oil and grease, which together with water sources pollute the water.

The water of these rivers has been polluted by the waste of industries located along the banks of the Ganges and Yamuna rivers.

In Kanpur, Allahabad and Varanasi &in most of the Ganges water has been polluted due to waste effluents from industries.

The colour of the water of the river Ganga has changed to the Kishanpur village, 10 km from Kanpur, after the waste of leather factories in Kanpur falls in the Ganges River.

The effluent wastewater from the IFFCO chemical fertilizer factory at Phulpur near Allahabad is found in the Ganges River, from which fishes have been found dead for a distance of 16 km.

4. Agricultural Effluents:

In present times, the use of various new methods in agriculture is increasing to get more production from crops.

Due to new methods in agriculture, there has been an increase in irrigation, on the other hand, the use of chemical fertilizers, indigestible pesticides have also increased at a rapid pace.

While these new experiments in agriculture have led to a huge increase in production, but damage to the environment (especially water pollution).

Defective farming practices have led to a huge increase in soil erosion, blocking the passage of rivers and raising the river bed.


Water is also polluted by mud soil deposition.

Another cause of water pollution under agricultural effluents is the increasing use of chemical fertilizers.  Most fertilizers are inorganic phosphate and nitrogen.

 A condition of undernutrition arises due to excessive use of these fertilizers.

Nutrition refers to the condition resulting from excessive enrichment of water by nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate.

Water gets polluted due to an increase in the state of nutrition. The excess fertilizer added to the fields slowly flows with water and reaches the rivers, ponds and ponds.

Water with high nitrogen content especially by reaching the lake, the process of eutrophication in the lake is intensified.

As a result, algae grow rapidly in water and decomposition bacteria are produced in large numbers due to the death of algae.

In the process of decomposition of organic matter, the amount of oxygen in the water is greatly reduced, as a result, aquatic organisms are deficient and water gets polluted.

The best example of malnutrition is Dal Lake. This world-famous lake has gone through the initial stages of malnutrition and get polluted.

The southeastern part of this lake is getting contaminated at a rapid pace due to the discharge of water waste and agricultural drainage.

5. Thermal Pollution:

River and pond water is used in various productive plants to prevent excessive heat effect of various reactors.

This water, which has been heated as a result of the cooling process, is then dumped into the water sources.

Such hot water increases the temperature of the water sources, thereby polluting the water.

Apart from industries, thermal pollution is also caused by steam or nuclear-powered power generating plants. Adequate natural water is used in energy plants for cooling the liquidators.

Thermal pollution has a special effect on water organisms. Large organisms cannot tolerate high temperatures.

With the increase in water temperature, the solubility of oxygen also decreases and the amount of salts increases.

6. Oily Pollution:

Due to the mixing of oil and oily substances in the river and other water sources from industrial plants, oily pollution occurs.

Due to the oil pollution, the oil quarry of the “Cuyahoga River “in the US and also oil refinery at Munger in Bihar state in India has caught fire.

There is a high possibility of oil pollution in the seas, due to which oil from the oil carrier keeps seeping in the sea and due to the crashing of the ships, there is a terrible fire.

According to an estimate, about 50 lakh to 10 million tons of petroleum products are found in the sea every year for various reasons.

7. Radioactive Waste and Degradation:

At present, numerous radioactive particles are spread far and wide in the atmosphere due to nuclear explosions and then gradually fall on the ground as sensitized which get into the water sources due to various reasons and through the food chain in the human body.

Radioactive substances combined in water sources make water toxic. Since radioactive particles dissolve very slowly, their effect on water lasts for many days.


Water pollution is a serious health concern that many countries of the world have to face.

Even some of the most developed nations like the United States are not protected from the effects of water pollution.

The situation is worst in difficult, underdeveloped countries followed by developed countries.

Poor sanitary conditions, absence of adequate medical facilities and low awareness of health issues are some of the main causes of water pollution and diseases caused by it.

The solution to water pollution lies in a multi-dimensional approach that is directed towards eliminating various causes of water pollution.

Essay on Water Pollution 2000 words:

Water pollution refers to the contamination of natural water resources by harmful and toxic compounds, mainly due to various human activities.

The introduction of a toxic substance into water bodies is harmful for consumption by humans, animals, and aquatic life.

This results in loss of species, loss of biodiversity, and habitat loss among various other complications. In further essays, we will discuss the causes and effects of water pollution.

Classification of Water Pollutants based on their properties:

Organic and inorganic chemicals, pathogens, physical impurities and sensory factors such as temperature rise, which are widely found in water, are included in water pollutants.

Water pollutants can be divided into the following three classes based on their properties and parameters-

Physical Pollutants:

Physical pollutants include substances and ingredients that affect the colour, smell, taste, light vulnerability of water, conductors, total solids and its normal temperature etc.

These mainly include sludge, suspended solids and liquid or other dissolved particles of silt and hot water coming out of thermal power plants and industrial units in certain conditions.

 Apart from these, paper, plastic debris and containers etc. can also be included. Physical impurities negatively impact the aquatic environment, causing staining by water discolouration.

Chemical Pollutants:

Chemical pollutants mainly include organic and inorganic chemicals, heavy metals and radioactive materials.

These pollutants affect the acidity, alkalinity and hardness of the water, radioactivity, availability of merged oxygen and chemical oxygen, etc.

Pollutants found in surface water include detergents, chemicals used in household disinfection, aerated fats and oils, food processing wastes, residues of insect and pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, volatile chemical compounds, industrial solvents and cosmetic products, etc. are major organic pollutants.

In addition to radioactive materials released from nuclear plants, inorganic chemicals, especially acids and alkaline waters from industrial units, nutrients extracted from fertilizers used in agriculture, especially nitrates, phosphates and fluorides through products of motor vehicles and industrial waste.

Organic Pollutants:

Organic pollutants contain unwanted organic materials that affect water-soluble oxygen, biological oxygen demand, immunity, etc.

Among these, biological materials, pathogenic bacteria, coliform bacteria, algae, hyacinth, aquatic ferns and parasitic insects, as well as water plants, etc. are prominent.

The total faecal coliform germs content in some waters of Indian water bodies is 500 MPN per 100 mg has been found more than the presence of pathogens at high levels in water indicates its insufficient treatment.

With the ageing of untreated sewage originating from cities and infrastructural in old cities, the pathogenic discharge has also been found in surface drinking water due to sewage collection, leakage in the pipe-pump-valve system, etc.

Occasionally algae, hyacinth, aquatic ferns, etc. found in surface water and pathogenic microorganisms. Also, read Water Pollution Essay Conclusion.


Causes of Water Pollution:

The main causes of increasing water pollution in water bodies are as follows:

1. Effluent dumping of industrial wastes and other products including organic toxins.

2. Various types of harmful chemical substances and heavy metals present in the waste discharged from factories.

3. Rise petroleum products and oily liquids from refineries and ports.

4. Untreated household effluents, sewage and solid waste, etc. from cities, towns and slums.

5. Improper disposal of waste generated from commercial animal husbandry initiatives, cattle ranchers and slaughterhouses.

6. Organic waste generated from agricultural activities, residues of fertilizers and pesticides etc.

7. Hot water coming out of the refrigeration units of various plants.

8. Depression sediments, clay stones and mineral elements etc. of natural degradable rocks.

9. Fall of radioactive material from nuclear homes.

Effect of Water Pollution:

Due to various types of physical, chemical and biological pollutants present in human activities.

Especially domestic waste, urban sewage, industrial and agricultural effluents, the pollution level of seawater, river basin, and aquatic ecology of moist lands, lakes and ponds has increased significantly.

The quality of these water bodies has also been affected due to rising pollution levels.

Water Quality in the River Basin:

Most of the untreated human waste is incorrectly disposed of in the river basin. The Ganges River is the largest in the country with an area of 861.404 square kilometres.

Thus, it covers a total geographical area of 26.2 per cent of the country.

According to an estimate, only 5 out of 22,900 million litres of wastewater generated in the Ganges basin, around 900 million litres per day is treated while 17,000 million litres of wastewater is diverted daily directly into the Ganges.

Today, the supply of drinking water in every city in-country is possible only through river water.

Water modification plants also sometimes stop working due to excessive pollutants or supply impure water which puts human health at risk.

This type of polluted water greatly increases the chances of spreading waterborne diseases.

We have to take this seriously otherwise the supply of drinking water through river water may be in danger which may have terrible consequences. Also, read Water Pollution Essay FAQ.

Aquatic Ecological Quality of Moist Land:

Moist lands are areas that are completely partially submerged throughout the year.

According to an estimate, about 41 lakh hectares of our country comes under wetlands.

The most land found in the country enriches the rich diversity of wildlife.

The moist lands provide biological diversity, high biological productivity and habitat as well as provide a community to the organisms found in them.

The ecology of moist lands is the most important in water quality management in natural form.

Their need cannot be ignored as an improvement in water quality and biological signals for the species.

With the increase in the human population, farming, the expansion of urban and industrialization has been polluting the aquatic ecology of these moist lands.

Due to human interference and increasing pollution, the aquatic ecology of moist lands and the degradation of water quality have decreased biological diversity, which is causing the aquatic ecological balance of these lands to deteriorate.

Thus, the value of moist lands has also declined due to deteriorating ecological balance.

Quality of Lakes and Ponds:

Lakes and ponds are stagnant bodies in which once filled, water often remains for years.

Once these are polluted, water cannot flow out and due to the continuous increase of the polluted pollutants, their quantity is gradually collected in the ponds.

Therefore, the pollution caused by them creates more dangerous conditions than the flowing water bodies like rivers and springs.

The ponds are usually located around towns and villages, so there is a lot of incidents of debris, excreta and organic matter from human and animal baths.

Due to an increase in the amount of organic matter, over nutrition in water resources or excess of these leads to an overgrowth of algae and other aquatic weeds.

The turbidity resulting from suspended impurities, colloidal pulsations, etc., in material impurities, impedes the transmission of light into water bodies by causing staining in the water.

Consequently, the aquatic ecology of these stagnant water bodies has changed considerably.

A large number of lakes across the country, whether natural or man-made have been the main sources of water.

Asia’s largest man-made Hussain Sagar Lake and natural lakes include Dal Lake, Kodaikanal Lake, Renuka Lake, Harike Lake, Naini Lake, Ramgarh Lake, Rabindra Sarobar Lake and Loktak Lakes in Manipur.

Most of these lakes do not meet the standard limits and quality criteria of bio-oxygen demand due to high organic matter accumulation.

Due to the outflow of domestic sewage, agricultural waste, industrial and others, their quality decreasing.

Some lakes are an important habitat for many birds, including many waterfowlers, especially Siberian cranes, flamingos and pelicans bird and their populations have declined over the past two decades. Also, read Water Pollution Essay FAQ.

Seawater Quality:

Despite being saltwater, it has its special quality due to which the marine ecosystem maintains the nutrition and balance of aquatic plankton and animals.

But sewage residues of fertilizers and pesticides, chlorinated hydrocarbons, heavy metals, radioactive elements, plastics and other chemical wastes leading to significantly increased pollution levels.

Apart from this, due to the spread of oil from petroleum products production, import and export, the quality of seawater and the oily water spread on the surface have a fatal effect on the supply of oxygen to animals and plant plankton, microorganisms and fish.

About 56 per cent of the fish is produced from sea parts for export.

Most of the big metros like Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, and the cities of Cochin, Thiruvananthapuram, Visakhapatnam and Goa are inhabited on the seashore.

Due to rapid human violation and pollution from these areas, the quality of seawater is falling.

According to an estimate, about two lakh birds die every year due to seawater pollution and the consumption of polluted fish.

Also, read 1. Pollution Essay 2. Water Conservation Essay 3. Save Water Essay


In this Essay on Water pollution is not only a threat to human health but also the health of the environment, although more than 70% of the water is absorbed by the earth, only 1% of freshwater is made up.

Therefore, it is high time to take global initiatives towards preventing further loss of water resources due to pollution.

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