Difference between DNA and RNA

DNA is a deoxyribonucleic acid and is a hereditary substance whereas RNA is a ribonucleic acid found in all living cells.

DNA is self-replicating; it duplicates itself while RNA cannot replicate on its own.

Here are some of the main differences between DNA and RNA to help you understand how both differ:



Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a chemical compound made up of two polynucleotide chains.

The development, operation, growth, and reproduction of all living things are governed by the genetic code, which is carried by these intricate double helices.

The same biological information is duplicated as and when the two strands of double-stranded DNA separate and are stored in the two strands of the molecule.


RNA complete form A polymeric molecule is ribonucleic acid.

It aids in a number of biological functions, including the coding, decoding, control, and expression of genes.

Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to help transmit genetic instructions that control the creation of particular proteins.

What is Difference between DNA and RNA?

RNA is a single-stranded molecule with a shorter chain of nucleotides than other molecules, whereas DNA is a double-stranded molecule with a long chain of nucleotides.

Let’s discuss the difference between them.

DNA replicates and preserves genetic data. It serves as a blueprint for all of an organism’s genetic material.RNA transports the genetic material from DNA to the ribosomal protein factories in a format that may be used to construct proteins.
The structure of DNA is a double helix that consists of two strands. Nucleotide-based building blocks make up these strands.The RNA only has one strand.
RNA is significantly shorter than DNA as a polymer. A single, lengthy DNA molecule, such as a chromosome, would measure many centimetres in length if it were unravelled.The length of RNA molecules varies; however, they are significantly shorter than lengthy DNA polymers. The size of a large RNA molecule may only be a few thousand base pairs.
Deoxyribose, the sugar in DNA, has one fewer hydroxyl group than ribose, the sugar in RNA.RNA has ribose sugar molecules, but they are not modified with the hydroxyl groups that deoxyribose has.
DNA contains the nucleotides Adenine (letter A), Thymine (letter T), Guanine (letter G), and Cytosine (letter C).Adenine, Guanine, and Cytosine are all shared by RNA and DNA, respectively, but Uracil is present in place of thymine.
DNA is primarily found in the nucleus, though it is also found in small amounts in the mitochondria.RNA is generated in the nucleolus and, depending on the type created, is then transported to certain locations of the cytoplasm.
The deoxyribose sugar in DNA, which has one less hydroxyl group-containing oxygen than RNA, makes it a more stable molecule.Since it contains ribose sugar, RNA is more reactive and instability in alkaline conditions.
UV rays have the potential to harm DNA.RNA is more resistant to UV radiation deterioration.


After reading this article you learned a lot about the differences between DNA and RNA, both are crucial; life would end if either of these polymers failed or vanished.

Protein cannot be produced without these components, which are necessary for life to exist and to provide energy.

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