Difference between Antigen and Antibody

The antigen is a large specialized protein located on the surface of microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other foreign substances, whereas antibody (Ab) is immunoglobulins (Ig).

Here are some of the main differences between Antigen and Antibody to help you understand how both differ:

Antigen Vs Antibody:


Antigens are substances that come into the body from the outside.

All substances that cause the immune system to create antibodies are considered antigens.

 Antigens include bacteria, viruses, and fungi that cause illness and infection.

The presence of antigens stimulates the disease-fighting white blood cells known as lymphocytes in your body.

When antigens are present, white blood cells create antibodies to target the antigens.

Antigens are classified into two types: hetero-antigens and autoantigens.

Hetero-antigens are molecules that are external to your body created by or found inside viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and so on.

Autoantigens also known as self-antigens are proteins produced by your body to combat your cells and are typically a symptom of a disease such as an autoimmune ailment.


 Immunoglobulins are another name for antibody unlike antigen.

These are Y-shaped proteins generated by your immune system’s B lymphocytes or B cells.

Viruses and other toxins from the outside are attacked and eliminated by B cells.

The most commonly used types of antibodies (immunoglobulins) are as follows.

IgG: antibodies are the most common forms of antibodies found in plasma. It rid the body of pollutants and provides long-term defence.

IgM: B cells generate IgM as the first antibody in response to stimuli.

IgA: antibodies attach to antigens and carry them out of the body via mucus or other body substances.

IgE: These antibodies cause allergies while also protecting against parasites. There are trace levels in your skin, lungs, and mucosal membranes.

IgD: Such antibodies bind to B cells and increase their production of IgM antibodies.

What is Difference between Antigen and Antibody?

Antigens are substances that can activate an immune response, whereas antibodies (immunoglobins) are Y-shaped proteins produced by B cells of the immune system in reaction to antigen stimulation.

Let’s discuss the difference between them as follows:


Any chemical that causes the body’s immune system to respond is referred to as an antigen.

Immunogens and antigens are two different terms for the same thing.

The foreign material that initiates an immunological reaction is known as an antigen.

Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, or nucleic acids can all serve as antigens.

The epitope is the area of the antigen and antibody that interacts.

Either sickness or allergic reactions are brought on by antigens.

Antigens are frequently classified into one of three types: Exogenous, Endogenous, and Autoantigens.

Epitopes are the parts of an antigen that engage in interaction with antibodies.


An antibody is a type of blood protein that is produced in response to a specific antigen.

Immunoglobulins is another name for antibodies.

The glycoprotein that is made in reaction to the antigen is an antibody.

Glycoproteins are antibodies.

The antibody’s variable site has the ability to attach to the epitope.

By paralyzing the antigen or lysing the pathogen, antibodies defend the body against antigens.

The most prevalent kinds of antibodies are Antibodies M, G, E, D, and A.

The term “paratope” refers to the variable region of an antibody that specifically binds to an epitope.


After reading this article you learned a lot about the differences between Antigen and Antibody, they are no longer able to confuse you.

Antigens and antibodies are chemicals that are associated with the body’s immunological responses.

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